Covid: better immune response in women, vaccines and variants, the

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from Laura Della EasterLaura Della Easter

1. Can the immune response after the vaccine depend on gender and lifestyle?

2. Where are the variant vaccines?

3. Why is US President Biden positive after taking antivirals?

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1. Can the immune response after the vaccine depend on gender and lifestyle?

Women and singles are more protected from Covid. The immune response acquired after vaccination depends not only on age and health conditions but also on gender, lifestyle and even marital status. A study published in Journal of Personalized Medicinecreated by a team of Italian researchers and promoted by Sapienza and the Policlinico Umberto I in Rome.

The antibody response of 2,065 health workers of the Policlinico Umberto I who had been administered the Pfizer vaccine was observed. Blood was drawn from this sample after 1 month and 5 months after the second vaccination. It was found that at 1 month the subjects with a previous Covid-19 infection and the younger ones had higher antibody levels; on the contrary, those who had autoimmune diseases, chronic lung diseases and smoking, had lower them. After 5 months of vaccination, there was an average decrease of 72% but less evident in women and in subjects with a previous infection. In smokers, hypertensive and less young people, a drop of about 82% was found. The researchers observed that in single or cohabiting individuals, the antibody response was maintained longer than in married, divorced or widowed subjects. “This association – they explained – could be due to other unexplored clinical variables, such as eating style. Factors linked to lifestyles, in fact, play an important role in the immune response “.

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2. Where are the variant vaccines?

Which vaccines will we do the fourth dose with in the fall? At the moment, the vaccine booster intended above all for the elderly and frail and immunosuppressed people, is carried out with traditional products already tested but it is a weapon that, while strengthening the immune defenses, does not prevent contagion from the variants. There Research of updated products able to provide protection against all Coronaviruses proceeds slowly and it is very likely that they will not arrive in time for autumn. There is a risk of creating a vaccine modulated on variants already in circulation but which would be old compared to other modifications of the virus. The scientific community is therefore wondering if it is worthwhile to use resources for a product that would be almost equal to those already in circulation. The update would protect against serious illness but not contagion. Research still lags behind in the preparation of universal vaccines, the so-called pan-coronaviruses, valid against all types of coronaviruses, and nasal ones, which by creating a nasal barrier, would be able to block the transmission of Covid. An obstacle to studies is also the broad immunization of the world population achieved with vaccination and contagion or both. Therefore, there are no “virgin” subjects on which to test the effectiveness of new products as it was at the beginning of the pandemic.

From a summit at the White House in which scientists, pharmaceutical executives and public health experts were brought together, precisely to discuss the future of new vaccines, no indications emerged, neither a request for funding nor a concrete plan. According to the virologist Florian Krammerof the Icahn School of Medicine on Mount Sinai, “the sense of urgency has been lost.”

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3. Why is US President Biden positive after taking antivirals?

American President Joe Biden, infected with Covid, was treated with Paxlovid antiviral and was thought to be cured because the test was negative. After a few days, however, by carrying out another swab it emerged that the virus was still present and was forced to a new quarantine.

The phenomenon is called “Rebound”, or rebound, and occurs between two and ten days after the end of the treatment. Often those affected do not even notice it because there are no symptoms or they are very mild in any case. Scientists are wondering whether to extend the drug administration period beyond the expected 5 days. U.S. Covid Response Coordinator Ashish Jha explained that rebound occurs in 5 to 8 percent of patients treated with Paxlovid. Since in most cases there are no complaints, the patient thinks he is completely cured and does not undergo a tampon. However, it may happen that the virus returns to manifest itself in a significant way, as happened last June, to the immunologist Anthony Fauci, treated equally with Paxlovid but who a few days after the negativization, complained of the presence of Covid, with more marked symptoms than at the first infection. THEn Italy antivirals are rarely used, despite having arrived in January. So far they have been used on 79 thousand infected.

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