Here is the difference between BES and DSA: a guide to understand more about two diagnostic categories that often alarm worried parents
Do you know what difference there is between BES and DSA? There are many parents who often seek information in the face of sometimes incomprehensible acronyms. In recent years, in fact, the change in legislative standards also in the world of schools has meant that a series of acronyms and codes that are often unclear are spreading. First of all, it is good to specify that DSAs are specific learning disorders, very different from BES, special educational needs, a category created to facilitate and enhance school inclusion. But what are we talking about specifically? Let's do some clarity.
DSA are a diagnostic category within which dyslexia (reading disorder), dysgraphia (writing disorder at motor level), dysorthography (writing disorder at linguistic level) and dyscalculia (calculation disorder) can be traced. These disorders can only be identified and certified by psychologists, neuropsychiatrists and, in some regions, even by speech therapists. This means that while the diagnoses issued by the ASL are always valid, those performed in private studies will follow different rules from region to region. Once the diagnosis of DSA has been ascertained, the psychologist will be required to specify the co-presence of other difficulties and resources and weaknesses on which the school will have to work through a specific intervention tailored to the needs of the child.
Children with DSA do not have a lower than normal delay and IQ, but have specific deficits that limit their learning. Therefore cognitive abilities are average, there are no neurological pathologies or sensory deficits. The BES instead, contrary to popular belief, are not intended as a diagnostic category and this is one of the main differences between BES and DSA. Any pupil can manifest specific needs with respect to the accreditation at any point during his / her journey. In some cases this situation can lead to the stipulation of a specific didactic plan.
This is not a clinical condition, but a pure pedagogical difficulty related to school. Generally BES are determined by physical, biological, physiological, social or psychological reasons. The C.M. No. 8 of 6 March 2013 specifies that BES includes conditions such as "social and cultural disadvantage, specific learning disorders and / or specific developmental disorders, the difficulties deriving from the lack of knowledge of Italian culture and language because they belong to cultures different". The picture that presents itself is therefore very varied and heterogeneous.